Examining what Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self‑efficacy, and Grit measure: An exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor approach

Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Graham Drinkwater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite conceptual similarities among the established non-cognitive constructs of Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self-efficacy, and Grit, preceding research typically considered these as adversary rather than complementary and potentially additive. Subsequently, comparatively few studies have examined these together. This paper, via two independent studies, examined commonality within Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self-efficacy, and Grit. This identified key elements that contribute to a broad, non-cognitive, resource-based construct. Study 1 (N = 2137) assessed shared variance among the non-cognitive constructs relative to a general factor. Study 2 (N = 1148) evaluated the replicability of the results from Study 1 and examined measurement invariance. Respondents completed established self-report measures indexing the study variables. Exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor analyses consistently revealed that Mental Toughness, the Ego-Resiliency Optimal Regulation subscale, and Self-efficacy loaded highly on a general factor, which the authors labelled as Non-Cognitive Adaptive Resourcefulness (NCAR). Invariance analyses supported the stability of this model across study context. This paper advanced conceptual understanding of the core shared features of independent non-cognitive constructs. The authors discuss the potential of NCAR and advocate the need for further research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22148-22163
Number of pages16
JournalCurrent Psychology
Volume42
Issue number26
Early online date15 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2023

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Examining what Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self‑efficacy, and Grit measure: An exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this