Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations

Martin Richards, Chiara Rengo, Fulvio Cruciani, Fiona Gratrix, James F. Wilson, Rosaria Scozzari, Vincent Macaulay, Antonio Torroni

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Abstract

We have analyzed and compared mitochondrial DNA variation of populations from the Near East and Africa and found a very high frequency of African lineages present in the Yemen Hadramawt: more than a third were of clear sub-Saharan origin. Other Arab populations carried ∼10% lineages of sub-Saharan origin, whereas non-Arab Near Eastern populations, by contrast, carried few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow has been preferentially into Arab populations. Several lines of evidence suggest that most of this gene flow probably occurred within the past ∼2,500 years. In contrast, there is little evidence for male-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa in Y-chromosome haplotypes in Arab populations, including the Hadramawt. Taken together, these results are consistent with substantial migration from eastern Africa into Arabia, at least in part as a result of the Arab slave trade, and mainly female assimilation into the Arabian population as a result of miscegenation and manumission.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1058-1064
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Volume72
Issue number4
Early online date10 Mar 2003
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2003

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Gene Flow
Africa South of the Sahara
Population
Eastern Africa
Arabia
Slaves
Yemen
Middle East
Y Chromosome
Mitochondrial DNA
Haplotypes

Cite this

Richards, M., Rengo, C., Cruciani, F., Gratrix, F., Wilson, J. F., Scozzari, R., ... Torroni, A. (2003). Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72(4), 1058-1064. https://doi.org/10.1086/374384
Richards, Martin ; Rengo, Chiara ; Cruciani, Fulvio ; Gratrix, Fiona ; Wilson, James F. ; Scozzari, Rosaria ; Macaulay, Vincent ; Torroni, Antonio. / Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations. In: American Journal of Human Genetics. 2003 ; Vol. 72, No. 4. pp. 1058-1064.
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Richards, M, Rengo, C, Cruciani, F, Gratrix, F, Wilson, JF, Scozzari, R, Macaulay, V & Torroni, A 2003, 'Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 1058-1064. https://doi.org/10.1086/374384

Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations. / Richards, Martin; Rengo, Chiara; Cruciani, Fulvio; Gratrix, Fiona; Wilson, James F.; Scozzari, Rosaria; Macaulay, Vincent; Torroni, Antonio.

In: American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 72, No. 4, 04.2003, p. 1058-1064.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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