Feature-Based Generalized Gaussian Distribution Method for NLoS Detection in Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Indoor Positioning System

Fuhu Che, Qasim Ahmed, Jaron Fontaine, Ben Van Herbruggen , Adnan Shahid, Eli De Poorter, Pavlos Lazaridis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Nonline-of-sight (NLoS) propagation condition is a crucial factor affecting the precision of the localization in the ultra-wideband (UWB) indoor positioning system (IPS). Numerous supervised machine learning (ML) approaches have been applied for the NLoS identification to improve the accuracy of the IPS. However, it is difficult for existing ML approaches to maintain a high classification accuracy when the database contains a small number of NLoS signals and a large number of line-of-sight (LoS) signals. The inaccurate localization of the target node caused by this small number of NLoS signals can still be problematic. To solve this issue, we propose feature-based Gaussian distribution (GD) and generalized GD (GGD) NLoS detection algorithms. By employing our detection algorithm for the imbalanced dataset, a classification accuracy of 96.7% and 98.0% can be achieved. We also compared the proposed algorithm with the existing cutting edge, such as support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT), naïve Bayes (NB), and neural network (NN), which can achieve an accuracy of 92.6%, 92.8%, 93.2%, and 95.5%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the GGD algorithm can achieve high classification accuracy with the imbalanced dataset. Finally, the proposed algorithm can also achieve a higher classification accuracy for different ratios of LoS and NLoS signals, which proves the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9870651
Pages (from-to)18726-18739
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number19
Early online date30 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022


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