Temporary streams comprise dynamic mosaics of lotic, lentic and terrestrial habitats and dominate global river networks, occurring across regions with contrasting climate types. Recent advances in our ecohydrological understanding of temporary streams have focused on systems in arid, semi-arid and mediterranean climates. In this special issue, we present new temporary stream research from underrepresented regions, primarily cool, wet temperate climates but also continental central Europe and the mediterranean-climate region of South Africa. We bring together observational case studies, laboratory experiments, and field surveys spanning surface water and groundwater habitats. Papers within the special issue explore ecological responses to flow intermittence; examine biodiversity patterns of rare and endemic species at broad spatial scales; characterize diverse responses to drying events within and among populations; demonstrate the value of long-term observational data in understanding the hydrological drivers that underpin biotic responses; and present opportunities to improve temporary stream monitoring and management. Collectively, these contributions complement dryland research to advance global understanding of temporary stream ecohydrology. However, the terrestrial communities that inhabit dry channels remain a notable research gap, which we address in a review of global literature. As global change causes an increase in their extent across climate regions, we urge researchers and stakeholders to collaborate to implement recommendations that address the challenges associated with the effective management of temporary streams as aquatic–terrestrial ecosystems.