|Title of host publication||The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies|
|Editors||Tim Vos, Folker Hanusch|
|Publisher||John Wiley & Sons Inc.|
|Publication status||Published - 21 May 2019|
Freelancing for news organizations refers to short-term, temporary, or contract work rather than full-time salaried employment. While freelance journalists may enjoy the flexibility and fun of doing this type of work, they also have to deal with low pay, no social security benefits, and insecure employment relationships. Yet freelance journalists have formed labor unions and professional associations to advocate for higher pay, benefits, and labor rights. Through these labor organizations and ad hoc alternative labor organizations, freelance journalists have used digital communications tools to refuse freelance contributors' contracts and unfair company demands, attempting to translate online collective action into organizational and legal change.