Many strategies have been proposed to explore the possibility of exploiting gastroretention for drug delivery. Such systems would be useful for local delivery, for drugs that are poorly soluble at higher pH or primarily absorbed from the proximal small intestine. Generally, the requirements of such strategies are that the vehicle maintains controlled drug release and exhibits prolonged residence time in the stomach. Despite widespread reporting of technologies, many have an inherent drawback of variability in transit times. Microparticulate systems, capable of distributing widely through the gastrointestinal tract, can potentially minimise this variation. While being retained in the stomach, the drug content is released slowly at a desired rate, resulting in reduced fluctuations in drug levels. This review summarises the promising role of microencapsulation in this field, exploring both floating and mucoadhesive microparticles and their application in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori, highlighting the clinical potential of eradication of this widespread infection.