|Title of host publication||Oxford Bibliographies in Education|
|Publisher||Oxford University Press|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 12 Jan 2023|
Permanent school exclusion rates are increasing for all genders, with much of the dominant discourse being framed around a widening concern about white working-class boys increasingly likely to disengage from formal education systems. Boys are more likely to receive formal fixed or permanent exclusions, but girls too are arguably at a disproportionate risk of being excluded via other means, such as school moves. Alternative education is for pupils under the school leaving age who because of exclusion, illness, or other reasons would not otherwise receive mainstream education. As such more males, then females tend to occupy alternative education provision. There is a great deal of literature about alternative education provision, much of which is international in its scope. This literature represents consistent findings across different countries and time when evaluating particular programs and exploring young people’s perceptions of such provisions, but the literature is much narrower in scope when analyzing the specificities of gender and alternative education. This bibliography is structured to present seminal studies, reports, and other key sources that serve to highlight the definitional issues with alternative education, while also identifying who alternative education tends to serve (with a focus on gender) and how such provision has been evaluated. Gender does to some extent shape the alternative education landscape, being dominated by boys. As such this bibliography serves to fill the dearth of knowledge with regards to the increasing need to highlight the differences in defining alternative education, in terms of who it is for and for what purpose, as well as to investigate how such varying provision is monitored in relation to gender.