Gendered differences in the prevalence and associated factors of dementia in Ghana: A cross-sectional survey

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BACKGROUND: Dementia as a global phenomenon has received significant attention in research due to the adverse effects it has on the daily functioning of its victims. Despite studies conducted in relation to the prevalence and associated factors of dementia in Ghana, not much attention has been paid to the influence of gender. The study, therefore, focused on estimating gender differences in the prevalence and associated factors of dementia in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

METHODS: This study adopted a cross-sectional design with surveys to recruit 800 participants who were 45 years or older. The data was obtained using the standardized Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) together with information on the various associated factors. A series of logistic models comprising of the total sample model, male sample model, and female sample model were estimated to analyse the data. All data analyses were completed in Stata version 14.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dementia was 23.38% [95% CI:20.44, 26.31]. More females 24.56% [95% CI:20.81, 28.31] compared to males 21.31% [95% CI:16.57, 26.04] were at risk of dementia. Younger age, attaining formal education, and belonging to richer households were negatively associated with the risk of dementia. In the total sample model, younger age and attaining formal education were negatively associated with dementia risk. In the male-female stratified models, education and household wealth index were negatively associated with dementia risk in the male sample while age and education were negatively related to dementia risk in the female sample.

CONCLUSION: The study concludes that there are gendered differences in the prevalence and factors associated with the risk of dementia in Ghana. As such, interventions and programmes to identify dementia cases must be gender sensitive. Specifically, when addressing dementia risk in males, interventions should be directed towards those with lower wealth status. Likewise, when developing programmes to mitigate dementia risk in women, particular attention should be given to women in the oldest age category.

Original languageEnglish
Article number397
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2024

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