Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East

Iosif Lazaridis, Dani Nadel, Gary Rollefson, Deborah C. Merrett, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Daniel Fernandes, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Kendra Sirak, Sarah Connell, Kristin Stewardson, Eadaoin Harney, Qiaomei Fu, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Eppie R. Jones, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, György Lengyel, Fanny Bocquentin, Boris Gasparian & 33 others Janet M. Monge, Michael Gregg, Vered Eshed, Ahuva Sivan Mizrahi, Christopher Meiklejohn, Fokke Gerritsen, Luminita Bejenaru, Matthias Blüher, Archie Campbell, Gianpiero Cavalleri, David Comas, Philippe Froguel, Edmund Gilbert, Shona M. Kerr, Peter Kovacs, Johannes Krause, Darren McGettigan, Michael Merrigan, D. Andrew Merriwether, Seamus O'Reilly, Martin B. Richards, Ornella Semino, Michel Shamoon-Pour, Gheorghe Stefanescu, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Antonio Torroni, James F. Wilson, Loic Yengo, Nelli A. Hovhannisyan, Nick Patterson, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

210 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ∼12,000 and 1,400BC, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a 'Basal Eurasian' lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to greatly reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those of Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-424
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume536
Issue number7617
Early online date25 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2016

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Middle East
Agriculture
Iran
Neanderthals
Eastern Africa
Jordan
Farmers
Israel
Population
Genome

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Lazaridis, I., Nadel, D., Rollefson, G., Merrett, D. C., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., ... Reich, D. (2016). Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature, 536(7617), 419-424. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19310
Lazaridis, Iosif ; Nadel, Dani ; Rollefson, Gary ; Merrett, Deborah C. ; Rohland, Nadin ; Mallick, Swapan ; Fernandes, Daniel ; Novak, Mario ; Gamarra, Beatriz ; Sirak, Kendra ; Connell, Sarah ; Stewardson, Kristin ; Harney, Eadaoin ; Fu, Qiaomei ; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria ; Jones, Eppie R. ; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan ; Lengyel, György ; Bocquentin, Fanny ; Gasparian, Boris ; Monge, Janet M. ; Gregg, Michael ; Eshed, Vered ; Mizrahi, Ahuva Sivan ; Meiklejohn, Christopher ; Gerritsen, Fokke ; Bejenaru, Luminita ; Blüher, Matthias ; Campbell, Archie ; Cavalleri, Gianpiero ; Comas, David ; Froguel, Philippe ; Gilbert, Edmund ; Kerr, Shona M. ; Kovacs, Peter ; Krause, Johannes ; McGettigan, Darren ; Merrigan, Michael ; Merriwether, D. Andrew ; O'Reilly, Seamus ; Richards, Martin B. ; Semino, Ornella ; Shamoon-Pour, Michel ; Stefanescu, Gheorghe ; Stumvoll, Michael ; Tönjes, Anke ; Torroni, Antonio ; Wilson, James F. ; Yengo, Loic ; Hovhannisyan, Nelli A. ; Patterson, Nick ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Reich, David. / Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. In: Nature. 2016 ; Vol. 536, No. 7617. pp. 419-424.
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Lazaridis, I, Nadel, D, Rollefson, G, Merrett, DC, Rohland, N, Mallick, S, Fernandes, D, Novak, M, Gamarra, B, Sirak, K, Connell, S, Stewardson, K, Harney, E, Fu, Q, Gonzalez-Fortes, G, Jones, ER, Roodenberg, SA, Lengyel, G, Bocquentin, F, Gasparian, B, Monge, JM, Gregg, M, Eshed, V, Mizrahi, AS, Meiklejohn, C, Gerritsen, F, Bejenaru, L, Blüher, M, Campbell, A, Cavalleri, G, Comas, D, Froguel, P, Gilbert, E, Kerr, SM, Kovacs, P, Krause, J, McGettigan, D, Merrigan, M, Merriwether, DA, O'Reilly, S, Richards, MB, Semino, O, Shamoon-Pour, M, Stefanescu, G, Stumvoll, M, Tönjes, A, Torroni, A, Wilson, JF, Yengo, L, Hovhannisyan, NA, Patterson, N, Pinhasi, R & Reich, D 2016, 'Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East', Nature, vol. 536, no. 7617, pp. 419-424. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19310

Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. / Lazaridis, Iosif; Nadel, Dani; Rollefson, Gary; Merrett, Deborah C.; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Gamarra, Beatriz; Sirak, Kendra; Connell, Sarah; Stewardson, Kristin; Harney, Eadaoin; Fu, Qiaomei; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Jones, Eppie R.; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Lengyel, György; Bocquentin, Fanny; Gasparian, Boris; Monge, Janet M.; Gregg, Michael; Eshed, Vered; Mizrahi, Ahuva Sivan; Meiklejohn, Christopher; Gerritsen, Fokke; Bejenaru, Luminita; Blüher, Matthias; Campbell, Archie; Cavalleri, Gianpiero; Comas, David; Froguel, Philippe; Gilbert, Edmund; Kerr, Shona M.; Kovacs, Peter; Krause, Johannes; McGettigan, Darren; Merrigan, Michael; Merriwether, D. Andrew; O'Reilly, Seamus; Richards, Martin B.; Semino, Ornella; Shamoon-Pour, Michel; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Torroni, Antonio; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loic; Hovhannisyan, Nelli A.; Patterson, Nick; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David.

In: Nature, Vol. 536, No. 7617, 25.08.2016, p. 419-424.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Lazaridis, Iosif

AU - Nadel, Dani

AU - Rollefson, Gary

AU - Merrett, Deborah C.

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AU - Mallick, Swapan

AU - Fernandes, Daniel

AU - Novak, Mario

AU - Gamarra, Beatriz

AU - Sirak, Kendra

AU - Connell, Sarah

AU - Stewardson, Kristin

AU - Harney, Eadaoin

AU - Fu, Qiaomei

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AU - Jones, Eppie R.

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AU - Lengyel, György

AU - Bocquentin, Fanny

AU - Gasparian, Boris

AU - Monge, Janet M.

AU - Gregg, Michael

AU - Eshed, Vered

AU - Mizrahi, Ahuva Sivan

AU - Meiklejohn, Christopher

AU - Gerritsen, Fokke

AU - Bejenaru, Luminita

AU - Blüher, Matthias

AU - Campbell, Archie

AU - Cavalleri, Gianpiero

AU - Comas, David

AU - Froguel, Philippe

AU - Gilbert, Edmund

AU - Kerr, Shona M.

AU - Kovacs, Peter

AU - Krause, Johannes

AU - McGettigan, Darren

AU - Merrigan, Michael

AU - Merriwether, D. Andrew

AU - O'Reilly, Seamus

AU - Richards, Martin B.

AU - Semino, Ornella

AU - Shamoon-Pour, Michel

AU - Stefanescu, Gheorghe

AU - Stumvoll, Michael

AU - Tönjes, Anke

AU - Torroni, Antonio

AU - Wilson, James F.

AU - Yengo, Loic

AU - Hovhannisyan, Nelli A.

AU - Patterson, Nick

AU - Pinhasi, Ron

AU - Reich, David

PY - 2016/8/25

Y1 - 2016/8/25

N2 - We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ∼12,000 and 1,400BC, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a 'Basal Eurasian' lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to greatly reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those of Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.

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Lazaridis I, Nadel D, Rollefson G, Merrett DC, Rohland N, Mallick S et al. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature. 2016 Aug 25;536(7617):419-424. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19310