Global Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GORD): Systematic Review with Meta-analysis

Jorabar Nirwan, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Barbara Conway, Muhammad Usman Ghori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Citations (Scopus)


Although gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common medical complaint, there is currently no consensus on the global prevalence of GORD. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on GORD prevalence and risk factors at a global level. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were systematically searched, without language restrictions, for studies on the prevalence and risk factors of GORD. Data were pooled using a random effects model (95% confidence interval), and the odds ratio and relative risk for each risk factor were calculated. Out of 34,355 search results, 96 records reporting the results from 102 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, representing 37 countries and all regions of the UN geoscheme. The global pooled prevalence of GORD was 13.98% and varied greatly according to region (12.88% in Latin America and the Caribbean to 19.55% in North America) and country (4.16% in China to 22.40% in Turkey). Using the United Nations 2017 Revision of World Population Prospects, the estimated number of individuals suffering from GORD globally is 1.03 billion. Multiple risk factors associated with a significant increase in the risk of GORD were also identified. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that although a substantial proportion (13.98%) of the global population suffers from GORD, there are significant variations between regions and countries. Risk factors for GORD were also identified which may allow clinicians to recognise individuals most at risk.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5814
Number of pages14
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2020


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