Green Communication for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Triangle Metric Based Multi-Layered Routing Protocol

Ahmad M. Khasawneh, Omprakash Kaiwartya, Jaime Lloret, Hayfa Y. Abuaddous, Laith Abualigah, Mohammad Al Shinwan, Mahmoud Ahmad Al-Khasawneh, Marwan Mahmoud, Rupak Kharel

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5 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we propose a non-localization routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), namely, the triangle metric based multi-layered routing protocol (TM2RP). The main idea of the proposed TM2RP is to utilize supernodes along with depth information and residual energy to balance the energy consumption between sensors. Moreover, TM2RP is the first multi-layered and multi-metric pressure routing protocol that considers link quality with residual energy to improve the selection of next forwarding nodes with more reliable and energy-efficient links. The aqua-sim package based on the ns-2 simulator was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed TM2RP. The obtained results were compared to other similar methods such as depth based routing (DBR) and multi-layered routing protocol (MRP). Simulation results showed that the proposed protocol (TM2RP) obtained better outcomes in terms of energy consumption, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7278
Number of pages23
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

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