GSK‐3 Inhibition is Cytotoxic in Glioma Stem Cells through Centrosome Destabilization and Enhances the Effect of Radiotherapy in Orthotopic Models

Anke Brüning‐Richardson, Gary C. Shaw, Daniel Tams, Tim Brend, Hitesh Sanganee, Simon T. Barry, Gregory Hamm, Richard J.A. Goodwin, John G. Swales, Henry King, Lynette Steele, Ruth Morton, Anastasia Widyadari, Thomas A. Ward, Filomena Esteves, Marjorie Boissinot, Alastair Droop, Sean E. Lawler, Susan C. Short

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Previous data on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK‐3) inhibition in cancer models support a cytotoxic effect with selectivity for tumor cells compared to normal tissue but the effect of these inhibitors in glioma has not been widely studied. Here, we investigate their potential as cytotoxics in glioma. Methods: We assessed the effect of pharmacologic GSK‐3 inhibition on established (U87, U251) and patient‐derived (GBM1, GBM4) glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines using cytotoxicity assays as well as undertaking a detailed investigation of the effect on cell cycle, mitosis, and centrosome biology. We also assessed drug uptake and efficacy of GSK‐3 inhibition alone and in combination with radiation in xenograft models. Results: Using the selective GSK‐3 inhibitor AZD2858, we demonstrated single agent cytotoxicity in two patient‐derived glioma cell lines (GBM1, GBM4) and two established cell lines (U251 and U87) with IC50 in the low micromolar range promoting centrosome disruption, failed mitosis, and S‐phase arrest. Glioma xenografts exposed to AZD2858 also showed growth delay compared to untreated controls. Combined treatment with radiation increased the cytotoxic effect of clinical radiation doses in vitro and in orthotopic glioma xenografts. Conclusions: These data suggest that GSK‐3 inhibition promotes cell death in glioma through disrupting centrosome function and promoting mitotic failure and that AZD2858 is an effective adjuvant to radiation at clinical doses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5939
Number of pages19
JournalCancers
Volume13
Issue number23
Early online date25 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

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