Guidelines of Serious Game Design for Promoting Reframing

Lanlan Gao, Rupert Ward, Carlo Fabricatore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background.: Reframing could be considered to represent individual and collective twofold values in social learning. When reframing is promoted, it benefits to generate learning processes involving collective inquiry occurring in inter and outer formal education. Digital games, popular as an application for the young generation, are considered a specific community in which social learning occurs by playing games. Serious games (SG) are a type of digital game involving educational purposes. Hence SG is selected as a suitable educational strategy to promote reframing. The previous research investigated features of a gameplay experience associated with reframing. This study develops further based on these game features to examine if/how they improved reframing capabilities. From an educational perspective, specific guidelines were proposed as the research findings to assist serious games in designing and applying game features to enhance the gameplay experience of reframing. 

Methods.: An expert evaluation was used to assess the guidelines. The seven experts with experience in game design and teaching were chosen to review the designed guidelines. These experts were required to rate the guidelines using a 5-point Likert scale. All experts offered positive feedback on the finding. 

Results.: Research data were analysed and validated via the Content Validity Index. The results showed that a total of 5 guidelines was remained and updated. 

Conclusion.: These guidelines can be applied to assist students, game designers, related educators, and researchers who use games to promote reframing or require evidence to link game features with social learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-84
Number of pages17
JournalSimulation and Gaming
Issue number1
Early online date6 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023

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