Hate crime as an area of justice and social policy has a relatively recent history, although it's not a new phenomenon. Drawing on evidence primarily from the United Kingdom and United States, this chapter examines four issues of particular salience to understanding hate crime victimization policy and practice: how hate crime is defined; how hate crime is measured; why victims under-report hate crime and how to encourage victims to report; and the effectiveness of services for hate crime victims. It concludes by offering a whole system model of support for hate crime victims that spans the victim's journey before, during and after the end of their engagement with the criminal justice system.
|Title of host publication
|Handbook on Victims' Issues in Criminal Justice
|Number of pages
|Published - 27 Apr 2017