Hate crime victimisation

Kevin Wong, Kris Christmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Hate crime as an area of justice and social policy has a relatively recent history, although it's not a new phenomenon. Drawing on evidence primarily from the United Kingdom and United States, this chapter examines four issues of particular salience to understanding hate crime victimization policy and practice: how hate crime is defined; how hate crime is measured; why victims under-report hate crime and how to encourage victims to report; and the effectiveness of services for hate crime victims. It concludes by offering a whole system model of support for hate crime victims that spans the victim's journey before, during and after the end of their engagement with the criminal justice system.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook on Victims' Issues in Criminal Justice
EditorsCliff Roberson
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)978-1138184718
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2017


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