Healing built-environment effects on health outcomes: environment-occupant-health framework

Yufan Zhang, Patricia Tzortzopoulos, Michail Kagioglou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


An investigation examined the structured scientific evidence on healthcare facilities (the healing built environment – HBE) and its impact on patients’ health outcomes under a holistic conceptual evaluative framework. The integrative review considered 127 papers (of which 59 were review papers). It found there was no adequate framework that could integrate existing research findings holistically. Such a holistic framework needs to demonstrate the cumulative and interactive effects of various HBE characteristics on patients’ health outcomes and wellbeing. An environment–occupant–health (E-O-H) framework is proposed, taking a holistic perspective to identify and evaluate different HBE characteristics. The E-O-H framework should support future research by (1) identifying the HBE characteristics that affect health outcomes; (2) defining appropriate future research designs; and (3) understanding the need for holistic analysis of the integrated effects of diverse HBE characteristics on health outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)747-766
Number of pages20
JournalBuilding Research and Information
Issue number6
Early online date10 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2019


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