Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

Sylvia T. Cole, John M. Toole, Ratnaksha Lele, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Shawn G. Gallaher, Timothy P. Stanton, William J. Shaw, Byonjun Hwang, Ted Maksym, Jeremy Wilkinson, Macarena Ortiz, Hans C. Graber, Luc Rainville, Alek A. Petty, Sinead L Farrell, Jackie A. Richter-Menge, Christian Haas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations of momentum transfer, and imply that the future Arctic system could become increasingly seasonal.
LanguageEnglish
Article number55
Number of pages27
JournalElementa
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Sep 2017
Externally publishedYes

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marginal ice zone
momentum transfer
Momentum transfer
roughness
Ice
Surface roughness
ice
ocean
drag coefficient
Drag coefficient
mixed layer
Sea ice
Parameterization
sea ice
parameterization
stratification

Cite this

Cole, S. T., Toole, J. M., Lele, R., Timmermans, M-L., Gallaher, S. G., Stanton, T. P., ... Haas, C. (2017). Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer. Elementa, 5, [55]. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.241
Cole, Sylvia T. ; Toole, John M. ; Lele, Ratnaksha ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Gallaher, Shawn G. ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Shaw, William J. ; Hwang, Byonjun ; Maksym, Ted ; Wilkinson, Jeremy ; Ortiz, Macarena ; Graber, Hans C. ; Rainville, Luc ; Petty, Alek A. ; Farrell, Sinead L ; Richter-Menge, Jackie A. ; Haas, Christian. / Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone : Ice roughness and momentum transfer. In: Elementa. 2017 ; Vol. 5.
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abstract = "The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30{\%} were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100{\%}. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations of momentum transfer, and imply that the future Arctic system could become increasingly seasonal.",
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Cole, ST, Toole, JM, Lele, R, Timmermans, M-L, Gallaher, SG, Stanton, TP, Shaw, WJ, Hwang, B, Maksym, T, Wilkinson, J, Ortiz, M, Graber, HC, Rainville, L, Petty, AA, Farrell, SL, Richter-Menge, JA & Haas, C 2017, 'Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer', Elementa, vol. 5, 55. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.241

Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone : Ice roughness and momentum transfer. / Cole, Sylvia T.; Toole, John M.; Lele, Ratnaksha; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Gallaher, Shawn G.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Shaw, William J.; Hwang, Byonjun; Maksym, Ted; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Ortiz, Macarena; Graber, Hans C.; Rainville, Luc; Petty, Alek A.; Farrell, Sinead L; Richter-Menge, Jackie A.; Haas, Christian.

In: Elementa, Vol. 5, 55, 21.09.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone

T2 - Elementa

AU - Cole, Sylvia T.

AU - Toole, John M.

AU - Lele, Ratnaksha

AU - Timmermans, Mary-Louise

AU - Gallaher, Shawn G.

AU - Stanton, Timothy P.

AU - Shaw, William J.

AU - Hwang, Byonjun

AU - Maksym, Ted

AU - Wilkinson, Jeremy

AU - Ortiz, Macarena

AU - Graber, Hans C.

AU - Rainville, Luc

AU - Petty, Alek A.

AU - Farrell, Sinead L

AU - Richter-Menge, Jackie A.

AU - Haas, Christian

PY - 2017/9/21

Y1 - 2017/9/21

N2 - The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations of momentum transfer, and imply that the future Arctic system could become increasingly seasonal.

AB - The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations of momentum transfer, and imply that the future Arctic system could become increasingly seasonal.

KW - Arctic ocean

KW - momentum transfer

KW - ice-ocean boundary layer

U2 - 10.1525/elementa.241

DO - 10.1525/elementa.241

M3 - Article

VL - 5

JO - Elementa

JF - Elementa

SN - 2325-1026

M1 - 55

ER -

Cole ST, Toole JM, Lele R, Timmermans M-L, Gallaher SG, Stanton TP et al. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer. Elementa. 2017 Sep 21;5. 55. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.241