Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53-independent pathways

S. J. Allison, J. R P Knight, C. Granchi, R. Rani, F. Minutolo, J. Milner, R. M. Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is key to cancer's glycolytic phenotype, catalysing the regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary to sustain glycolysis. As such, LDH-A is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here we ask if the tumour suppressor p53, a major regulator of cellular metabolism, influences the response of cancer cells to LDH-A suppression. LDH-A knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) induced cancer cell death in p53 wild-type, mutant and p53-null human cancer cell lines, indicating that endogenous LDH-A promotes cancer cell survival irrespective of cancer cell p53 status. Unexpectedly, however, we uncovered a novel role for p53 in the regulation of cancer cell NAD+ and its reduced form NADH. Thus, LDH-A silencing by RNAi, or its inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor, resulted in a p53-dependent increase in the cancer cell ratio of NADH:NAD+. This effect was specific for p53+/+ cancer cells and correlated with (i) reduced activity of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and (ii) an increase in acetylated p53, a known target of SIRT1 deacetylation activity. In addition, activation of the redox-sensitive anticancer drug EO9 was enhanced selectively in p53+/+ cancer cells, attributable to increased activity of NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1). Suppressing LDH-A increased EO9-induced DNA damage in p53+/+ cancer cells, but importantly had no additive effect in non-cancer cells. Our results identify a unique strategy by which the NADH/NAD+ cellular redox status can be modulated in a cancer-specific, p53-dependent manner and we show that this can impact upon the activity of important NAD(H)-dependent enzymes. To summarise, this work indicates two distinct mechanisms by which suppressing LDH-A could potentially be used to kill cancer cells selectively, (i) through induction of apoptosis, irrespective of cancer cell p53 status and (ii) as a part of a combinatorial approach with redox-sensitive anticancer drugs via a novel p53/NAD(H)-dependent mechanism.

LanguageEnglish
Article numbere102
Number of pages11
JournalOncogenesis
Volume3
Early online date12 May 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

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NAD
Neoplasms
apaziquone
Therapeutics
Sirtuin 1
Oxidation-Reduction
lactate dehydrogenase 5
Glycolysis
RNA Interference
Oxidoreductases
Enzymes
Pharmaceutical Preparations
DNA Damage
Regeneration
Cell Survival
Cell Death

Cite this

@article{3a9f2292e06548389a3e6f153df1536e,
title = "Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53-independent pathways",
abstract = "Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is key to cancer's glycolytic phenotype, catalysing the regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary to sustain glycolysis. As such, LDH-A is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here we ask if the tumour suppressor p53, a major regulator of cellular metabolism, influences the response of cancer cells to LDH-A suppression. LDH-A knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) induced cancer cell death in p53 wild-type, mutant and p53-null human cancer cell lines, indicating that endogenous LDH-A promotes cancer cell survival irrespective of cancer cell p53 status. Unexpectedly, however, we uncovered a novel role for p53 in the regulation of cancer cell NAD+ and its reduced form NADH. Thus, LDH-A silencing by RNAi, or its inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor, resulted in a p53-dependent increase in the cancer cell ratio of NADH:NAD+. This effect was specific for p53+/+ cancer cells and correlated with (i) reduced activity of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and (ii) an increase in acetylated p53, a known target of SIRT1 deacetylation activity. In addition, activation of the redox-sensitive anticancer drug EO9 was enhanced selectively in p53+/+ cancer cells, attributable to increased activity of NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1). Suppressing LDH-A increased EO9-induced DNA damage in p53+/+ cancer cells, but importantly had no additive effect in non-cancer cells. Our results identify a unique strategy by which the NADH/NAD+ cellular redox status can be modulated in a cancer-specific, p53-dependent manner and we show that this can impact upon the activity of important NAD(H)-dependent enzymes. To summarise, this work indicates two distinct mechanisms by which suppressing LDH-A could potentially be used to kill cancer cells selectively, (i) through induction of apoptosis, irrespective of cancer cell p53 status and (ii) as a part of a combinatorial approach with redox-sensitive anticancer drugs via a novel p53/NAD(H)-dependent mechanism.",
keywords = "apoptosis, cancer metabolism, combinatorial anticancer therapy, LDH-A, p53",
author = "Allison, {S. J.} and Knight, {J. R P} and C. Granchi and R. Rani and F. Minutolo and J. Milner and Phillips, {R. M.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1038/oncsis.2014.16",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
journal = "Oncogenesis",
issn = "2157-9024",
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Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53-independent pathways. / Allison, S. J.; Knight, J. R P; Granchi, C.; Rani, R.; Minutolo, F.; Milner, J.; Phillips, R. M.

In: Oncogenesis, Vol. 3, e102, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53-independent pathways

AU - Allison, S. J.

AU - Knight, J. R P

AU - Granchi, C.

AU - Rani, R.

AU - Minutolo, F.

AU - Milner, J.

AU - Phillips, R. M.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is key to cancer's glycolytic phenotype, catalysing the regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary to sustain glycolysis. As such, LDH-A is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here we ask if the tumour suppressor p53, a major regulator of cellular metabolism, influences the response of cancer cells to LDH-A suppression. LDH-A knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) induced cancer cell death in p53 wild-type, mutant and p53-null human cancer cell lines, indicating that endogenous LDH-A promotes cancer cell survival irrespective of cancer cell p53 status. Unexpectedly, however, we uncovered a novel role for p53 in the regulation of cancer cell NAD+ and its reduced form NADH. Thus, LDH-A silencing by RNAi, or its inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor, resulted in a p53-dependent increase in the cancer cell ratio of NADH:NAD+. This effect was specific for p53+/+ cancer cells and correlated with (i) reduced activity of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and (ii) an increase in acetylated p53, a known target of SIRT1 deacetylation activity. In addition, activation of the redox-sensitive anticancer drug EO9 was enhanced selectively in p53+/+ cancer cells, attributable to increased activity of NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1). Suppressing LDH-A increased EO9-induced DNA damage in p53+/+ cancer cells, but importantly had no additive effect in non-cancer cells. Our results identify a unique strategy by which the NADH/NAD+ cellular redox status can be modulated in a cancer-specific, p53-dependent manner and we show that this can impact upon the activity of important NAD(H)-dependent enzymes. To summarise, this work indicates two distinct mechanisms by which suppressing LDH-A could potentially be used to kill cancer cells selectively, (i) through induction of apoptosis, irrespective of cancer cell p53 status and (ii) as a part of a combinatorial approach with redox-sensitive anticancer drugs via a novel p53/NAD(H)-dependent mechanism.

AB - Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is key to cancer's glycolytic phenotype, catalysing the regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary to sustain glycolysis. As such, LDH-A is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here we ask if the tumour suppressor p53, a major regulator of cellular metabolism, influences the response of cancer cells to LDH-A suppression. LDH-A knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) induced cancer cell death in p53 wild-type, mutant and p53-null human cancer cell lines, indicating that endogenous LDH-A promotes cancer cell survival irrespective of cancer cell p53 status. Unexpectedly, however, we uncovered a novel role for p53 in the regulation of cancer cell NAD+ and its reduced form NADH. Thus, LDH-A silencing by RNAi, or its inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor, resulted in a p53-dependent increase in the cancer cell ratio of NADH:NAD+. This effect was specific for p53+/+ cancer cells and correlated with (i) reduced activity of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and (ii) an increase in acetylated p53, a known target of SIRT1 deacetylation activity. In addition, activation of the redox-sensitive anticancer drug EO9 was enhanced selectively in p53+/+ cancer cells, attributable to increased activity of NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1). Suppressing LDH-A increased EO9-induced DNA damage in p53+/+ cancer cells, but importantly had no additive effect in non-cancer cells. Our results identify a unique strategy by which the NADH/NAD+ cellular redox status can be modulated in a cancer-specific, p53-dependent manner and we show that this can impact upon the activity of important NAD(H)-dependent enzymes. To summarise, this work indicates two distinct mechanisms by which suppressing LDH-A could potentially be used to kill cancer cells selectively, (i) through induction of apoptosis, irrespective of cancer cell p53 status and (ii) as a part of a combinatorial approach with redox-sensitive anticancer drugs via a novel p53/NAD(H)-dependent mechanism.

KW - apoptosis

KW - cancer metabolism

KW - combinatorial anticancer therapy

KW - LDH-A

KW - p53

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DO - 10.1038/oncsis.2014.16

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