Identifying Causal Risk Factors for Violence among Discharged Patients

Jeremy W. Coid, Constantinos Kallis, Mike Doyle, Jenny Shaw, Simone Ullrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Background Structured Professional Judgement (SPJ) is routinely administered in mental health and criminal justice settings but cannot identify violence risk above moderate accuracy. There is no current evidence that violence can be prevented using SPJ. This may be explained by routine application of predictive instead of causal statistical models when standardising SPJ instruments. Methods We carried out a prospective cohort study of 409 male and female patients discharged from medium secure services in England and Wales to the community. Measures were taken at baseline (pre-discharge), 6 and 12 months post-discharge using the Historical, Clinical and Risk-20 items version 3 (HCR-20v3) and Structural Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF). Information on violence was obtained via the McArthur community violence instrument and the Police National Computer. Results In a lagged model, HCR-20v3 and SAPROF items were poor predictors of violence. Eight items of the HCR-20v3 and 4 SAPROF items did not predict violent behaviour better than chance. In re-Analyses considering temporal proximity of risk/ protective factors (exposure) on violence (outcome), risk was elevated due to violent ideation (OR 6.98, 95% CI 13.85- 12.65, P<0.001), instability (OR 5.41, 95% CI 3.44-8.50, P<0.001), and poor coping/ stress (OR 8.35, 95% CI 4.21-16.57, P<0.001). All 3 risk factors were explanatory variables which drove the association with violent outcome. Self-control (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.08-0.24, P<0.001) conveyed protective effects and explained the association of other protective factors with violence. Conclusions Using two standardised SPJ instruments, predictive (lagged) methods could not identify risk and protective factors which must be targeted in interventions for discharged patients with severe mental illness. Predictive methods should be abandoned if the aim is to progress from risk assessment to effective risk management and replaced by methods which identify factors causally associated with violence.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0142493
Number of pages17
JournalPLoS One
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Identifying Causal Risk Factors for Violence among Discharged Patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this