We describe a range of powerful multiscale analysis methods. We also focus on the pivotal issue of measurement noise in the physical sciences. From multiscale analysis and noise modeling, we develop a comprehensive methodology for data analysis of 2D images, 1D signals (or spectra), and point pattern data. Noise modeling is based on the following: (i) multiscale transforms, including wavelet transforms; (ii) a data structure termed the multiresolution support; and (iii) multiple scale significance testing. The latter two aspects serve to characterize signal with respect to noise. The data analysis objectives we deal with include noise filtering and scale decomposition for visualization or feature detection.