Impact of blur on clinical and occupational colour vision test results

Leticia Álvaro, Monika A. Formankiewicz, Sarah J. Waugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To evaluate whether colour vision normal (CVN) adults pass two Fletcher–Evans (CAM) lantern tests and to investigate the impact of imposed blur on Ishihara, CAM lantern and computerised colour discrimination test (colour assessment and diagnosis test [CAD] and Cambridge colour test [CCT]) results. Methods: In a pilot experiment, 20 (16 CVN and 4 colour vision deficient [CVD]) participants with normal VA were tested with the CAM lantern. In the main experiment, the impact of imposed dioptric blur (up to +8.00 D) on visual acuity and the Ishihara test, CAM lantern, CAD and CCT was assessed for 15 CVN participants. Results: CVN participants can fail the CAM lantern, with specificity of 81.25% (aviation mode) and 75% (clinical mode), despite following the test requirements of participants having at least 0.18 logMAR (6/9) in the better eye. With blur, test accuracy was affected. As expected, significant detrimental effects of blur on test results were found for logMAR VA and CAM lantern (aviation) with +1.00 D or higher. Ishihara, CAD and CCT results were not detrimentally affected until +8.00 D. Yellow-blue discrimination was more affected by blur for the CAD than the CCT, which was not explained by the different colour spaces used or vectors tested. Conclusion: False-positive findings on lantern colour vision tests with small apertures are likely to be increased in patients with blur due to uncorrected refractive error or ocular and visual pathway disease. Other colour vision tests with larger stimuli are more robust to blur.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Early online date21 Jun 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Jun 2024

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