Impact of Correlation and Pointing Error on Secure Outage Performance Over Arbitrary Correlated Nakagami-m and M-Turbulent Fading Mixed RF-FSO Channel

Sheikh Habibul Islam, A. S.M. Badrudduza, S. M.Riazul Islam, Fardin Ibne Shahid, Imran Shafique Ansari, Milton Kumar Kundu, Heejung Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In Radio Frequency (RF)-Free Space Optical (FSO) mixed links, secrecy capacity (SC) can be improved by exploiting spatial diversity (i.e., antenna diversity) in the RF path. In addition to atmospheric turbulence and point error of the FSO link, antenna correlation in the RF link can significantly deteriorate the secrecy performance. In this paper, a secrecy rate of wiretap channels with a single source, relay, destination, and eavesdropper is analyzed under practical environments with the aforementioned impairments. The RF hop (source-To-relay) and the FSO hop (relay-To-destination) are modeled utilizing arbitrarily correlated Nakagami-m and Málaga (\mathcal {M}) distributions, respectively. The correlated signal branches of the RF hop are combined at the relay exploiting equal gain combining reception technique. We assume that the eavesdropper is capable of wiretapping via RF and FSO links separately. We derive novel closed-form expressions for secrecy outage probability (SOP) and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC) considering heterodyne detection (HD) and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) techniques in order to examine the impact of atmospheric scintillation, pointing error, fading, and correlation on the system's secrecy performance. It is shown that the HD technique exhibits a better performance than an IM/DD technique. In addition, similar to the pointing error and turbulent fading, the correlation imposes a detrimental impact on SC. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided for validation of the derived expressions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9354969
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number2
Early online date10 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes

Cite this