The diffusion of arsenic implanted into silicon at low ion energies (2.5 keV) has been studied with medium-energy ion scattering, secondary ion mass spectrometry and four-point probe measurements. The dopant redistribution together with the corresponding damage recovery and electrical activation produced by high-temperature (550-975 °C) rapid thermal anneals has been investigated for a range of substrate temperatures (+25, +300 and -120 °C) during implant. Initial results show an implant temperature dependence of the damage structure and arsenic lattice position prior to anneal. Solid-phase epitaxial regrowth was observed following 550 °C, 10 s anneals for all implant temperatures and resulted in approximately 60% of the implanted arsenic moving to substitutional positions. Annealing at 875 °C resulted in similar arsenic redistribution for all implant temperatures. Following annealing at 925 °C, transient-enhanced diffusion was observed in all samples with more rapid diffusion in the +25 °C samples than either the -120 or +300 °C implants, which had similar dopant profiles. In the 975 °C anneal range, similar rates of implant redistribution were observed for the +300 and +25 °C implants, while diffusion in the -120 °C sample was reduced. These observations are discussed qualitatively in terms of the nature and density of the complex defects existing in the as-implanted samples.