In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians

A survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

Nadia Al-Zahery, Maria Pala, Vincenza Battaglia, Viola Grugni, Mohammed A. Hamod, Baharak Kashani, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni, Augusta S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, Ornella Semino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results: To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates). Conclusions: Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of southern Iraq implies that if the Marsh Arabs are descendants of the ancient Sumerians, also the Sumerians were most likely autochthonous and not of Indian or South Asian ancestry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number288
JournalBMC Evolutionary Biology
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Arabs
Iraq
Y chromosome
footprint
mitochondrial DNA
marshes
marsh
chromosome
ancestry
buffaloes
gene
polygamy
genetic drift
homogeneity
rearing
wetlands
stratification
rice
farming systems
wetland

Cite this

Al-Zahery, Nadia ; Pala, Maria ; Battaglia, Vincenza ; Grugni, Viola ; Hamod, Mohammed A. ; Kashani, Baharak ; Olivieri, Anna ; Torroni, Antonio ; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Augusta S. ; Semino, Ornella. / In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians : A survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq. In: BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2011 ; Vol. 11, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results: To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates). Conclusions: Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of southern Iraq implies that if the Marsh Arabs are descendants of the ancient Sumerians, also the Sumerians were most likely autochthonous and not of Indian or South Asian ancestry.",
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Al-Zahery, N, Pala, M, Battaglia, V, Grugni, V, Hamod, MA, Kashani, B, Olivieri, A, Torroni, A, Santachiara-Benerecetti, AS & Semino, O 2011, 'In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: A survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq', BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, 288. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-288

In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians : A survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq. / Al-Zahery, Nadia; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Hamod, Mohammed A.; Kashani, Baharak; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Augusta S.; Semino, Ornella.

In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 288, 07.10.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians

T2 - A survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

AU - Al-Zahery, Nadia

AU - Pala, Maria

AU - Battaglia, Vincenza

AU - Grugni, Viola

AU - Hamod, Mohammed A.

AU - Kashani, Baharak

AU - Olivieri, Anna

AU - Torroni, Antonio

AU - Santachiara-Benerecetti, Augusta S.

AU - Semino, Ornella

PY - 2011/10/7

Y1 - 2011/10/7

N2 - Background: For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results: To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates). Conclusions: Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of southern Iraq implies that if the Marsh Arabs are descendants of the ancient Sumerians, also the Sumerians were most likely autochthonous and not of Indian or South Asian ancestry.

AB - Background: For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results: To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates). Conclusions: Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of southern Iraq implies that if the Marsh Arabs are descendants of the ancient Sumerians, also the Sumerians were most likely autochthonous and not of Indian or South Asian ancestry.

KW - middle eastern

KW - water buffalo

KW - marsh area

KW - haplogroup frequency

KW - euphrates river

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