In-situ inspection system for additive manufacturing based on phase measurement profilometry

Yue Liu, Zonghua Zhang, Liam Blunt, Grant Saunby, Jason Dawes, Ben Blackham, Hussein Abdul Rahman, Chris Smith, Feng Gao, Xiangqian Jiang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Additi ve manufa cturing (AM) of me tal powde r by ele ctron bea m fusion offe rs sig nifi cant adva ntages compa re d with tradi tional subtra cti ve manufa cturing te chniques . AM has de veloped signi fi cantl y ove r re cent years and is now widel y used in acade mi c a nd industry, pa rti cula rl y in ae rospa ce and medi cal de vi ce manufa cture. AM te chniques s till ha ve many unsol ved challenges, such as the de te ction of pa rt defe cts de velope d duri ng the AM building process. Powde r deli ve ry is a process tha t occurs many thousands of times during the build cycle, consequentl y the assessment of deli ve ry quality would be important for in-build quality control . This pape r des cribes the de velopment of an inspe ction s ys tem for the powde r bed deli ve ry by using phase measure ment profilome try. A compensa tion algori thm for nonlinear e ffe ct is inves tiga ted in orde r to i mpro ve the accura cy and tra ceability of the inspe cti on te chnique. A te mporal s ynchronisation te chnique is employe d to re duce the da ta capture ti me down to 2 se conds for ea ch inspe ction. Addi tionall y a novel calibra tion me thod based on a surfa ce fitting algori thm is inves tiga ted and employed to reduce the influence of phase e rror and random noise. The resul ts show the deploye d calibra tion protocol can effe cti vel y enhance the inspe ction a ccura cy and sol ve hi ghe r ha rmoni c proble ms. The proposed in -situ inspe ction te chnique was deploye d on a prototype ele ctron beam melting (EBM) AM machine. An e xample of e xcessi ve powde r deli ve ry due to rake damage during a real pa rt build i s used to de mons tra te the s ys te m capability on the a ctual EBea m ma chine. Addi tionall y, two e xa mples of e xcessive powde r deli ve ry a cross a reas of the powde r bed and the resul ting scanning results obtained duri ng the building are shown. Expe rime ntal resul ts de monstra te tha t powde r defe cts can be e ffi cientl y inspe cted wi th the proposed te chnique and inspe ction a ccura cy is improved s i gnificantly by a pplying the proposed calibration me thod and compensation algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Conference Proceedings - 19th International Conference and Exhibition, EUSPEN 2019
EditorsRichard K. Leach, D. Billington, C. Nisbet, D. Phillips
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9780995775145
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event19th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology - Euskalduna, Bilbao, Spain
Duration: 3 Jun 20197 Jun 2019
Conference number: 19


Conference19th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology
Abbreviated titleEUSPEN 2019
Internet address


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