A detailed theoretical and experimental study of the influence of injector doping on the output characteristics and electron heating in midinfrared GaAsAlGaAs quantum cascade lasers is presented. The employed theoretical model of electron transport was based on a fully nonequilibrium self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson analysis of the scattering rate and energy balance equations. Three different devices with injector sheet doping densities in the range of (4-6.5) × 1011 cm-2 have been grown and experimentally characterized. Optimized arsenic fluxes were used for the growth, resulting in high-quality layers with smooth surfaces and low defect densities. A quasilinear increase of the threshold current with sheet injector doping has been observed both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental and calculated current-voltage characteristics are in a very good agreement. A decrease of the calculated coupling constant of average electron temperature versus the pumping current with doping level was found.