Purpose: Use of antibiotics can give rise to the selection of resistant bacteria. It remains unclear whether antibiotic use in primary care can influence bacterial resistance incidence in patients when hospitalised. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of prior community antibiotic usage on hospital-detected multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) incidence rate. Methods: This pharmacoepidemiological study was case–control in design, and was carried out in the Antrim Area Hospital (N. Ireland) in two phases. In phase 1, the controls were matched according to: age, gender, admission ward, date of admission, and age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index score. During the second phase, controls were selected randomly from the total population of admissions to the hospital over the 2-year study period. Results: In phase 1, multivariate analysis revealed that prior exposure to the second- and third-generation cephalosporins (p = 0.004) and fluoroquinolones (p = 0.023) in primary care was associated with an increased likelihood of MRGN detection in inpatients. In phase 2, an independent relationship between an increased risk of identification of MRGN, while hospitalised was associated with: prolonged hospitalisation (p < 0.001), being elderly (p < 0.001), being female (p = 0.007), and having genitourinary disease (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides clear evidence which supports the need to optimise antibiotic use in primary care to help reduce MRGN incidence in hospitalised patients.