Chapter 1 by Mulder and Winterton introduces the Volume Competence-based Vocational and Professional Education. They state that the Volume is meant to clarify the manifold meanings of and approaches regarding competence-based education, to show the diversity and to explain the backgrounds of the differences so that scholars and practitioners will be better informed about this. It should help making the different views on competence and competence-based education transparent and bridging the opposing positions. The Volume should inform debates on competence-based vocational and professional education in a comprehensive way and serve as a basis for further improvement of competence-based vocational and professional education policies and practices, development of competence theory and carrying out of research. Its ultimate mission is to improve the quality of vocational and professional education for the sake of establishing a competent global workforce. In the beginning of the chapter, the authors state that competence is important to establish a competent society. They describe the development of the construct in science and practice. Next, they define competence, being competent, competency and competencies. Next they go into contexts and functions of the use of the construct ‘competence’ and elaborate on the context in which this construct is used in this Volume, which is vocational and professional education. They then distinguish three waves of competence-based education theorising, as functional behaviourism, integrated occupationalism and situated professionalism. Next, the questions are being formulated which served as the starting point to develop this Volume as a whole. Then the parts of the Volume and the chapters are being introduced, and the chapter is finalised with the description of the purpose of the book.