Helle Håkonsen, Isabel Emmerick, Zaheer Ud Din Babar

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All across the globe, pharmaceutical policies have undergone significant changes in recent decades to improve availability, access and quality of drugs. This chapter provides examples of policies of low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries that are at different stages of development with regard to their health system. It includes policies implemented in the wake of the Universal Declaration of Human Rightsfollowed by a description of national efforts to increase pharmaceutical production and supply, and measures to harmonize national regulations with international standards. Finally, increased access to affordable drugs is explored with an emphasis on the wider availability of generic drugs. The low-income and lower middle-income countries included are Pakistan, the Philippines, Vietnam, and the East African Community; the upper middle-income examples included are Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, China, Ecuador, Jordan, Russia and South Africa. Poland, Saudi Arabia, Trinidad and Tobago, and UAE are then presented as examples of high-income countries with developing healthcare systems. The chapter concludes that pharmaceutical policies have played a central role to make drugs more available and accessible and thereby improve social conditions and decrease poverty. Still, there are structural developments that present considerable challenges in providing equitable access to drugs.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPharmaceutical Policy in Countries with Developing Healthcare Systems
EditorsZaheer Ud-Din-Babar
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9783319516738
ISBN (Print)9783319516721, 9783319847153
Publication statusPublished - 4 Apr 2017


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