Introduction and Psychometric Validation of the Prison Personnel Trauma Measure (PPTM)

Russell Woodfield, Daniel Boduszek, Dominic Willmott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aim of the study was to create and validate a brief self-report measure of trauma exposure specific to personnel employed within a prison environment which exhibits predicative validity for a number of adverse psychological conditions shown to be a consequence of working within such prison environments.

Method: The Prison Personnel Trauma Measure (PPTM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) were administered to 1995 Prison Personnel in England and Wales. Dimensionality and construct validity of the PPTM were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Two alternative models of the PPTM were specified and tested using Mplus with WLSMV estimation.

Results: The three-factor model of the PPTM offered the best representation of the data. The results suggest that the PPTM consists of three sub scales: self-harm/death, violence, and environment. Good composite reliability and differential predictive validity were observed.

Conclusion: This brief measure can be used to ascertain potential vulnerability to the subsequent development of adverse psychological symptoms (PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression) amongst prison personnel for specific trauma related experiences that are known to be an inherent part of certain occupational roles within a prison environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-262
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Issue number4
Early online date23 Apr 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


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