Doping of graphene via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of nanometer-scale patterned graphene-based devices as well as for graphene functionalization compatible with large-scale integrated semiconductor technology. Using advanced electron microscopy/spectroscopy methods, we show for the first time directly that graphene can be doped with B and N via ion implantation and that the retention is in good agreement with predictions from calculation-based literature values. Atomic resolution high-angle dark field imaging (HAADF) combined with single-atom electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy reveals that for sufficiently low implantation energies ions are predominantly substitutionally incorporated into the graphene lattice with a very small fraction residing in defect-related sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Bangert, U., Pierce, W., Kepaptsoglou, D. M., Ramasse, Q., Zan, R., Gass, M. H., ... Hofsäss, H. (2013). Ion Implantation of Graphene - Toward IC Compatible Technologies. Nano Letters, 13(10), 4902-4907. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl402812y