‘Jus in Bello’: The IHL Principle of Distinction in the Context of Asymmetric and Hybrid Armed Conflicts

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Armed conflicts are increasingly assuming an asymmetric character through the involvement of non-State actors such as terrorist groups, militants, and insurgents. This phenomenon presents complex challenges for the international legal framework regulating warfare (Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello). This paper sets out to critically evaluate the legal challenges and practical difficulties which attain the application of the IHL principle of distinction in asymmetric and hybrid armed conflicts. While acknowledging the progress made in articulating the norms of ‘jus in bello’, the paper highlights persistent and pervasive problems in the application of the law governing armed conflicts to battlefield situations. The paper’s key objective is to counsel the necessity for the further refinement and granulation of current ‘signature policies’ involving the use of armed drones in the targeting of terror suspects. This is done with a view to attaining a greater degree of accuracy, clarity and precision in calibrating the vital distinction between civilian status and the various categories of presumed combatants. The conclusion posits the impossibility of attaining the rule of distinction in the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). It further argues that when viewed from this perspective, the mere possession and stockpiling of WMDs could per se be construed as constituting the requisite mens rea, or animus belligerendi, of preparation for the possible future commission of a war crime.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Law, Regulations and Public Policy (LRPP 2017)
PublisherGlobal Science & Technology Forum, Singapore
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2017
Event6th Annual International Conference on Law, Regulations & Public Policy - Fort Canning Hotel, Singapore, Singapore
Duration: 5 Jun 20176 Jun 2017
Conference number: 6
http://dl4.globalstf.org/?wpsc-product=6th-annual-international-conference-on-laws-regulations-and-public-policy-2017 (Link to Conference Details)


Conference6th Annual International Conference on Law, Regulations & Public Policy
Abbreviated titleLRPP
Internet address


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