Level and time panning of phantom images for musical sources

Hyunkook Lee, Francis Rumsey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the independent influences of interchannel level difference (ICLD) and interchannel time difference (ICTD) on the panning of 2-channel stereo phantom images for various musical sources. The results indicate that a level panning can perform robustly regardless of the spectral and temporal characteristics of source signals, whereas a time panning is not suitable for a continuous source with a high fundamental frequency. Statistical differences between the data obtained for different sources are found to be insignificant, and from this a unified set of ICLD and ICTD values for 10°, 20°, and 30° image positions are derived. Linear level and time panning functions for the two separate panning regions of 0°-20° and 21°-30° are further proposed, and their applicability to arbitrary loudspeaker base angle is also considered. These perceptual panning functions are expected to be more accurate than the theoretical sine or tangent law in terms of matching between predicted and actually perceived image positions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)978-988
Number of pages11
JournalAES: Journal of the Audio Engineering Society
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2013


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