This article examines the relationship between Marxism and feminism from the late nineteenth century to the present day. It draws on the concept of patriarchy to argue that Marxism's claim to provide a comprehensive theory of human history and society is flawed by its marginalization of experiences and aspects of life traditionally associated with women. It introduces the concept of (re)production to argue that domestic, procreative and caring activities and relationships should be seen as part of the material basis of society. It also argues that the complex interconnections between production and (re)production should be an important focus of materialist analysis. It concludes that Marxism and feminism can be complementary aids to the understanding of society, but only if this is a two-way process, and Marxism itself is transformed.