Massive MIMO Systems for 5G Communications

Sinan A. Khwandah, John P. Cosmas, Pavlos I. Lazaridis, Zaharias D. Zaharis, Ioannis P. Chochliouros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Massive MIMO will improve the performance of future 5G systems in terms of data rate and spectral efficiency, while accommodating a large number of users. Furthermore, it allows for 3D beamforming in order to provide more degrees of freedom and increase the number of high-throughput users. Massive MIMO is expected to provide more advantages compared to other solutions in terms of energy and spectral efficiency. This will be achieved by focusing the radiation towards the direction of the intended users, thus implementing simultaneous transmission to many users while keeping interference low. It can boost the capacity compared to a conventional antenna solution, resulting in a spectral efficiency up to 50 times greater than that provided by actual 4G technology. However, to take full advantage of this technology and to overcome the challenges of implementation in a real environment, a complicated radio system is required. The purpose of this work is to present the MIMO technology evolution and challenges in a simple introductory way and investigate potential system enhancements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2101-2115
Number of pages15
JournalWireless Personal Communications
Issue number3
Early online date8 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


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