Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness

J.A. Van Den Berg, M. A. Reading, P. Bailey, T. Q. C. Noakes, C. Adelmann, M. Popovici, H. Tielens, T. Conard, S. De Gendt, S. Van Elshocht

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Abstract

Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using, typically, 100-200 keV H + or He+ ions derives it ability to characterise nanolayers from the fact that the energy after backscattering depends (i) on the elastic energy loss suffered in a single collision with a target atom and (ii) on the inelastic energy losses on its incoming and outgoing trajectories. From the former the mass of the atom can be determined and from the latter its depth. Thus MEIS yields depth dependent compositional and structural information, with high depth resolution (sub-nm near the surface) and good sensitivity for all but the lighter masses. It is particularly well suited for the depth analysis of high-k multilayers of nanometer thickness. Accurate quantification of the depth distributions of atomic species can be obtained using suitable spectrum simulation. In the present paper, important aspects of MEIS including quantification, depth resolution and spectrum simulation are briefly discussed. The capabilities of the technique in terms of the high depth resolution layer compositional and structural information it yields, is illustrated with reference to the detailed characterisation of a range of high-k nanolayer and multilayer structures for current microelectronic devices or those still under development: (i) HfO2 and HfSiOx for gate dielectric applications, including a TiN/Al2O3/HfO 2/SiO2/Si structure, (ii) TiN/SrTiO3/TiN and (iii) TiO2/Ru/TiN multilayer structures for metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMcaps) in DRAM applications. The unique information provided by the technique is highlighted by its clear capability to accurately quantify the composition profiles and thickness of nanolayers and complex multilayers as grown, and to identify the nature and extent of atom redistribution (e.g. intermixing, segregation) during layer deposition, annealing and plasma processing. The ability makes it a valuable tool in the development of the nanostructures that will become increasingly important as device dimensions continue to be scaled down. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-16
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Surface Science
Volume281
Early online date9 Feb 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2013

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ion scattering
Multilayers
Scattering
Ions
Atoms
Energy dissipation
Metals
Plasma applications
energy
Dynamic random access storage
Gate dielectrics
Backscattering
laminates
Microelectronics
energy dissipation
Nanostructures
Capacitors
atoms
Trajectories
Annealing

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Van Den Berg, J.A. ; Reading, M. A. ; Bailey, P. ; Noakes, T. Q. C. ; Adelmann, C. ; Popovici, M. ; Tielens, H. ; Conard, T. ; De Gendt, S. ; Van Elshocht, S. / Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness. In: Applied Surface Science. 2013 ; Vol. 281. pp. 8-16.
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title = "Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness",
abstract = "Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using, typically, 100-200 keV H + or He+ ions derives it ability to characterise nanolayers from the fact that the energy after backscattering depends (i) on the elastic energy loss suffered in a single collision with a target atom and (ii) on the inelastic energy losses on its incoming and outgoing trajectories. From the former the mass of the atom can be determined and from the latter its depth. Thus MEIS yields depth dependent compositional and structural information, with high depth resolution (sub-nm near the surface) and good sensitivity for all but the lighter masses. It is particularly well suited for the depth analysis of high-k multilayers of nanometer thickness. Accurate quantification of the depth distributions of atomic species can be obtained using suitable spectrum simulation. In the present paper, important aspects of MEIS including quantification, depth resolution and spectrum simulation are briefly discussed. The capabilities of the technique in terms of the high depth resolution layer compositional and structural information it yields, is illustrated with reference to the detailed characterisation of a range of high-k nanolayer and multilayer structures for current microelectronic devices or those still under development: (i) HfO2 and HfSiOx for gate dielectric applications, including a TiN/Al2O3/HfO 2/SiO2/Si structure, (ii) TiN/SrTiO3/TiN and (iii) TiO2/Ru/TiN multilayer structures for metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMcaps) in DRAM applications. The unique information provided by the technique is highlighted by its clear capability to accurately quantify the composition profiles and thickness of nanolayers and complex multilayers as grown, and to identify the nature and extent of atom redistribution (e.g. intermixing, segregation) during layer deposition, annealing and plasma processing. The ability makes it a valuable tool in the development of the nanostructures that will become increasingly important as device dimensions continue to be scaled down. {\circledC} 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "High-k nanolayers, Medium energy ion scattering analysis, High resolution depth profiling, Metal–insulator–metal capacitor (MIMcap) layers",
author = "{Van Den Berg}, J.A. and Reading, {M. A.} and P. Bailey and Noakes, {T. Q. C.} and C. Adelmann and M. Popovici and H. Tielens and T. Conard and {De Gendt}, S. and {Van Elshocht}, S.",
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Van Den Berg, JA, Reading, MA, Bailey, P, Noakes, TQC, Adelmann, C, Popovici, M, Tielens, H, Conard, T, De Gendt, S & Van Elshocht, S 2013, 'Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness', Applied Surface Science, vol. 281, pp. 8-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.02.003

Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness. / Van Den Berg, J.A.; Reading, M. A.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. Q. C.; Adelmann, C.; Popovici, M.; Tielens, H.; Conard, T.; De Gendt, S.; Van Elshocht, S.

In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 281, 15.09.2013, p. 8-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness

AU - Van Den Berg, J.A.

AU - Reading, M. A.

AU - Bailey, P.

AU - Noakes, T. Q. C.

AU - Adelmann, C.

AU - Popovici, M.

AU - Tielens, H.

AU - Conard, T.

AU - De Gendt, S.

AU - Van Elshocht, S.

PY - 2013/9/15

Y1 - 2013/9/15

N2 - Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using, typically, 100-200 keV H + or He+ ions derives it ability to characterise nanolayers from the fact that the energy after backscattering depends (i) on the elastic energy loss suffered in a single collision with a target atom and (ii) on the inelastic energy losses on its incoming and outgoing trajectories. From the former the mass of the atom can be determined and from the latter its depth. Thus MEIS yields depth dependent compositional and structural information, with high depth resolution (sub-nm near the surface) and good sensitivity for all but the lighter masses. It is particularly well suited for the depth analysis of high-k multilayers of nanometer thickness. Accurate quantification of the depth distributions of atomic species can be obtained using suitable spectrum simulation. In the present paper, important aspects of MEIS including quantification, depth resolution and spectrum simulation are briefly discussed. The capabilities of the technique in terms of the high depth resolution layer compositional and structural information it yields, is illustrated with reference to the detailed characterisation of a range of high-k nanolayer and multilayer structures for current microelectronic devices or those still under development: (i) HfO2 and HfSiOx for gate dielectric applications, including a TiN/Al2O3/HfO 2/SiO2/Si structure, (ii) TiN/SrTiO3/TiN and (iii) TiO2/Ru/TiN multilayer structures for metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMcaps) in DRAM applications. The unique information provided by the technique is highlighted by its clear capability to accurately quantify the composition profiles and thickness of nanolayers and complex multilayers as grown, and to identify the nature and extent of atom redistribution (e.g. intermixing, segregation) during layer deposition, annealing and plasma processing. The ability makes it a valuable tool in the development of the nanostructures that will become increasingly important as device dimensions continue to be scaled down. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using, typically, 100-200 keV H + or He+ ions derives it ability to characterise nanolayers from the fact that the energy after backscattering depends (i) on the elastic energy loss suffered in a single collision with a target atom and (ii) on the inelastic energy losses on its incoming and outgoing trajectories. From the former the mass of the atom can be determined and from the latter its depth. Thus MEIS yields depth dependent compositional and structural information, with high depth resolution (sub-nm near the surface) and good sensitivity for all but the lighter masses. It is particularly well suited for the depth analysis of high-k multilayers of nanometer thickness. Accurate quantification of the depth distributions of atomic species can be obtained using suitable spectrum simulation. In the present paper, important aspects of MEIS including quantification, depth resolution and spectrum simulation are briefly discussed. The capabilities of the technique in terms of the high depth resolution layer compositional and structural information it yields, is illustrated with reference to the detailed characterisation of a range of high-k nanolayer and multilayer structures for current microelectronic devices or those still under development: (i) HfO2 and HfSiOx for gate dielectric applications, including a TiN/Al2O3/HfO 2/SiO2/Si structure, (ii) TiN/SrTiO3/TiN and (iii) TiO2/Ru/TiN multilayer structures for metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMcaps) in DRAM applications. The unique information provided by the technique is highlighted by its clear capability to accurately quantify the composition profiles and thickness of nanolayers and complex multilayers as grown, and to identify the nature and extent of atom redistribution (e.g. intermixing, segregation) during layer deposition, annealing and plasma processing. The ability makes it a valuable tool in the development of the nanostructures that will become increasingly important as device dimensions continue to be scaled down. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - High-k nanolayers

KW - Medium energy ion scattering analysis

KW - High resolution depth profiling

KW - Metal–insulator–metal capacitor (MIMcap) layers

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