The present work reviews the microstructure of hydrated gluten network and its protein fractions i.e., gliadin and glutenin. We summarize microstructural imaging of the last forty years as observed by various techniques such as atomic force or electron microscopy. Furthermore, rheological and calorimetric modeling that provides additional information on the microstructural features of the network is also discussed. Combining most of the available evidence it is suggested that the building blocks of gluten network are gluten-sheets with embedded aggregates. The sheets are arranged in parallel fashion to give rise to a nanoporous ultrastructure.