Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

Ceiridwen J. Edwards, Ruth Bollongino, Amelie Scheu, Andrew Chamberlain, Anne Tresset, Jean Denis Vigne, Jillian F. Baird, Greger Larson, Simon Y.W. Ho, Tim H. Heupink, Beth Shapiro, Abigail R. Freeman, Mark G. Thomas, Rose Marie Arbogast, Betty Arndt, László Bartosiewicz, Norbert Benecke, Mihael Budja, Louis Chaix, Alice M. ChoykeEric Coqueugniot, Hans Jürgen Döhle, Holger Göldner, Sönke Hartz, Daniel Helmer, Barabara Herzig, Hitomi Hongo, Marjan Mashkour, Mehmet Özdogan, Erich Pucher, Georg Roth, Sabine Schade-Lindig, Ulrich Schmölcke, Rick J. Schulting, Elisabeth Stephan, Hans Peter Uerpmann, István Vörös, Barbara Voytek, Daniel G. Bradley, Joachim Burger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

218 Citations (Scopus)


The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1377-1385
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1616
Early online date3 Apr 2007
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


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