Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

Antonio Salas, José Lovo-Gómez, Vanesa Álvarez-Iglesias, María Cerezo, María Victoria Lareu, Vincent Macaulay, Martin B. Richards, Ángel Carracedo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings: We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090-16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance: As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a very limited contribution from European and African women (∼5%). This implies that the Atlantic slave trade had a very small demographic impact in El Salvador in contrast to its transformation of the gene pool in neighbouring populations from the Caribbean facade.

LanguageEnglish
Article numbere6882
Pages1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPLoS One
Volume4
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes

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El Salvador
Mitochondrial DNA
varespladib methyl
Genes
Population
Facades
mitochondrial DNA
Stars
Slaves
DNA
Gene Pool
Mitochondrial Genome
Bayes Theorem
North American Indians
American Indians
Public Sector
Phylogeny
North America
Central America
DNA Sequence Analysis

Cite this

Salas, A., Lovo-Gómez, J., Álvarez-Iglesias, V., Cerezo, M., Lareu, M. V., Macaulay, V., ... Carracedo, Á. (2009). Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador. PLoS One, 4(9), 1-10. [e6882]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882
Salas, Antonio ; Lovo-Gómez, José ; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa ; Cerezo, María ; Lareu, María Victoria ; Macaulay, Vincent ; Richards, Martin B. ; Carracedo, Ángel. / Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador. In: PLoS One. 2009 ; Vol. 4, No. 9. pp. 1-10.
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Salas, A, Lovo-Gómez, J, Álvarez-Iglesias, V, Cerezo, M, Lareu, MV, Macaulay, V, Richards, MB & Carracedo, Á 2009, 'Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador', PLoS One, vol. 4, no. 9, e6882, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882

Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador. / Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 4, No. 9, e6882, 02.09.2009, p. 1-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Lareu, María Victoria

AU - Macaulay, Vincent

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Salas A, Lovo-Gómez J, Álvarez-Iglesias V, Cerezo M, Lareu MV, Macaulay V et al. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador. PLoS One. 2009 Sep 2;4(9):1-10. e6882. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882