The obstacles to the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections include the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and therapy requiring multiple drugs with complicated dosing schedules. Other obstacles include bacterial residence in an environment where high antibiotic concentrations are difficult to achieve. Biofilm production by the bacteria is an additional challenge to the effective treatment of this infection. Conventional oral formulations used in the treatment of this infection have a short gastric residence time, thus limiting the duration of exposure of drug to the bacteria. This review summarizes the current research in the development of gastroretentive formulations and the prospective future applications of this approach in the targeted delivery of drugs such as antibiotics to the stomach.