Modular Autonomous Electric Vehicle Scheduling for Customized On-demand Bus Services

Rongge Guo, Wei Guan, Mauro Vallati, Wenyi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The emerging customized bus system based on modular autonomous electric vehicles (MAEVs) shows tremendous potential to improve the mobility, accessibility and environmental friendliness of a public transport system. However, the existing studies in this area almost focus on human-driven vehicles which face some striking limitations (e.g., restricted crew scheduling and fixed vehicle capacity) and can weaken the overall benefits. This paper proposes a two-phase optimization procedure to fully unleash the potential of MAEVs by leveraging the strengths of MAEVs, including automatic allocation and charging of modules. In the first phase, a mixed integer programming model is established in the space-time-state framework to jointly optimize the MAEV routing and charging, passenger-to-vehicle assignment and vehicle capacity management for reserved passengers. A Lagrangian relaxation algorithm is developed to solve the model efficiently. In the second phase, three dispatching strategies are designed and optimized by a dynamic dispatching procedure to properly adapt the operation of MAEVs to emerging travel demands. A case study conducted on a major urban area of Beijing, China, demonstrates the high efficiency of the MAEV adoption in terms of resource utilization and environmental friendliness across a range of travel demand distributions, vehicle
supply and module capacity scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10122470
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Early online date9 May 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 May 2023


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