Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa

Verónica Gomes, Maria Pala, Antonio Salas, Vanesa Álvarez-Iglesias, António Amorim, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Ángel Carracedo, Douglas J Clarke, Catherine Hill, Maru Mormina, Marie-Anne Shaw, David W Dunne, Rui Pereira, Vânia Pereira, Maria João Prata, Paula Sánchez-Diz, Teresa Rito, Pedro Soares, Leonor Gusmão, Martin B Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-27
Number of pages15
JournalHuman Genetics
Volume134
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2015

Fingerprint

Great Lakes Region
Eastern Africa
Linguistics
Uganda
Mitochondrial DNA
Mothers
Central Africa
Sudan
Western Africa
Medical Genetics
Horns
Lakes
Population Groups
Language
History

Cite this

Gomes, V., Pala, M., Salas, A., Álvarez-Iglesias, V., Amorim, A., Gómez-Carballa, A., ... Richards, M. B. (2015). Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Human Genetics, 134(9), 1013-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1583-0
Gomes, Verónica ; Pala, Maria ; Salas, Antonio ; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa ; Amorim, António ; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto ; Carracedo, Ángel ; Clarke, Douglas J ; Hill, Catherine ; Mormina, Maru ; Shaw, Marie-Anne ; Dunne, David W ; Pereira, Rui ; Pereira, Vânia ; Prata, Maria João ; Sánchez-Diz, Paula ; Rito, Teresa ; Soares, Pedro ; Gusmão, Leonor ; Richards, Martin B. / Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa. In: Human Genetics. 2015 ; Vol. 134, No. 9. pp. 1013-27.
@article{5678250aa6bf414493a9a0ddc4dc01ee,
title = "Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa",
abstract = "The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.",
keywords = "African Continental Ancestry Group, DNA, Mitochondrial, Genetic Variation, Humans, Phylogeny, Phylogeography, Principal Component Analysis, Uganda, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
author = "Ver{\'o}nica Gomes and Maria Pala and Antonio Salas and Vanesa {\'A}lvarez-Iglesias and Ant{\'o}nio Amorim and Alberto G{\'o}mez-Carballa and {\'A}ngel Carracedo and Clarke, {Douglas J} and Catherine Hill and Maru Mormina and Marie-Anne Shaw and Dunne, {David W} and Rui Pereira and V{\^a}nia Pereira and Prata, {Maria Jo{\~a}o} and Paula S{\'a}nchez-Diz and Teresa Rito and Pedro Soares and Leonor Gusm{\~a}o and Richards, {Martin B}",
year = "2015",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1007/s00439-015-1583-0",
language = "English",
volume = "134",
pages = "1013--27",
journal = "Human Genetics",
issn = "0340-6717",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "9",

}

Gomes, V, Pala, M, Salas, A, Álvarez-Iglesias, V, Amorim, A, Gómez-Carballa, A, Carracedo, Á, Clarke, DJ, Hill, C, Mormina, M, Shaw, M-A, Dunne, DW, Pereira, R, Pereira, V, Prata, MJ, Sánchez-Diz, P, Rito, T, Soares, P, Gusmão, L & Richards, MB 2015, 'Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa', Human Genetics, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 1013-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1583-0

Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa. / Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B.

In: Human Genetics, Vol. 134, No. 9, 09.2015, p. 1013-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa

AU - Gomes, Verónica

AU - Pala, Maria

AU - Salas, Antonio

AU - Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa

AU - Amorim, António

AU - Gómez-Carballa, Alberto

AU - Carracedo, Ángel

AU - Clarke, Douglas J

AU - Hill, Catherine

AU - Mormina, Maru

AU - Shaw, Marie-Anne

AU - Dunne, David W

AU - Pereira, Rui

AU - Pereira, Vânia

AU - Prata, Maria João

AU - Sánchez-Diz, Paula

AU - Rito, Teresa

AU - Soares, Pedro

AU - Gusmão, Leonor

AU - Richards, Martin B

PY - 2015/9

Y1 - 2015/9

N2 - The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

AB - The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

KW - African Continental Ancestry Group

KW - DNA, Mitochondrial

KW - Genetic Variation

KW - Humans

KW - Phylogeny

KW - Phylogeography

KW - Principal Component Analysis

KW - Uganda

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1007/s00439-015-1583-0

DO - 10.1007/s00439-015-1583-0

M3 - Article

VL - 134

SP - 1013

EP - 1027

JO - Human Genetics

JF - Human Genetics

SN - 0340-6717

IS - 9

ER -

Gomes V, Pala M, Salas A, Álvarez-Iglesias V, Amorim A, Gómez-Carballa A et al. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Human Genetics. 2015 Sep;134(9):1013-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1583-0