Along with the recent advance of multichannel three-dimensional (3D) audio technologies, a number of new microphone techniques for 3D acoustic sound recording have been proposed over the years. To choose a technique that is most suitable for the intended goal of a recording, it is first necessary to understand the design principles, pros and cons of different techniques. This paper first categorises existing 3D microphone arrays according to their physical configurations, design philosophies and purposes, followed by an overview of each array. Studies that have subjectively or objectively evaluated different microphone arrays are also reviewed. Different approaches in the configuration of upper microphone layer are discussed, aiming to provide theoretical and practical insights into how they can contribute to creating an immersive auditory experience. Finally, limitations of previous studies and future research topics in 3D sound recording are identified.