An unprecedented 2.5 nm array of π interactions between eight aromatic rings drives the formation of a catenane. Disruption of this array through the use of longer ligands results in the formation of only single, uncatenated rings. The catenated complex is shown to persist in solution alongside its constituent metallomacrocycles.
Lu, J., Turner, D. R., Harding, L. P., Byrne, L. T., Baker, M. V., & Batten, S. R. (2009). Octapi interactions: Self-assembly of a Pd-based catenane driven by eightfold π interactions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131(30), 10372-10373. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja9041912