Overview of Availability, Cost, and Affordability of Antibiotics for Adults in Jordan: An AWaRe Classification Perspective

Feras Darwish Elhajji, Sahar Abuhasheesh, Ahmed Al Rusasi, Mamoon A. Aldeyab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a global public health threat, with rates directly linked with consumption. The World Health Organization (WHO)’s AWaRe classification aims to guide antibiotic use, and is influenced by drug availability, affordability, and economic policies. In Jordan, a high proportion of consumed antibiotics belong to the ‘Watch’ category. Data from the WHO’s AWaRe classification, the Essential Medicines List, and the Jordan Food and Drug Administration were analyzed. Antibiotics for adults were classified, their costs per defined daily dose (DDD) were determined and their affordability assessed. In 2023, 43 injectable and 43 oral antibiotics for adults were registered in Jordan. ‘Watch’ antibiotics were the most common. ‘Access’ antibiotics had the lowest cost/DDD. ‘Reserve’ antibiotics were the most expensive, with few generics. Injectable antibiotics had a negative correlation between cost and the number of alternatives. Affordability was higher for oral antibiotics compared with injectable ones. ‘Reserve’ antibiotics were generally unaffordable. This study highlights the need to promote ‘Access’ antibiotics over other categories by encouraging the registration of missing ‘Access’ antibiotics and adjusting the prices of ‘Watch’ and ‘Reserve’ antibiotics. Competition among generics can lead to lower prices, increasing affordability and accessibility. We emphasize the importance of the AWaRe classification in guiding antibiotic use in Jordan.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1576
Number of pages14
Issue number11
Early online date29 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023

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