In this paper, we analyze the performance of an uplink large-scale multiple-input-multiple-output system with a single base station (BS) serving spatially distributed multiantenna user devices (UDs) within a fixed coverage area. Stochastic geometry is used to characterize the spatially distributed users while large dimensional random matrix theory is used to achieve deterministic approximations of the sum rate of the system. In particular, the users in the vicinity of the BS are considered to follow a Poisson point process within the fixed coverage area. The sum rate of this system is analyzed with respect to different number of antennas at the BS as well as the intensity of the users within the coverage area of the cell. Closed-form approximations for the deterministic rate at low and high signal-to-noise ratio regimes are derived that have very low computational complexity. The deterministic rate for a general kth ordered user is also derived. It is shown that the deterministic approximations offer a reliable estimate of the ergodic sum rate obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. We also briefly touch on the growing issue of power consumption in wireless systems by analyzing the energy efficiency of the system using a power consumption model, taking into consideration the circuit power consumption, which is a function of the number of antennas of the BS and UDs.