Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for sleep disturbances in Alzheimer’s disease

Binish Javed, Amaan Javed, Chia Siang Kow, Syed Shahzad Hasan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders among the older population. Sleep disruption and circadian rhythm disorders often develop in AD patients, and many experience sleeping difficulties requiring pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.

Areas covered
This review appraised the evidence from clinical studies on various pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for sleep disturbances in AD patients and proposed an algorithm to manage sleep disturbances in this population of patients.

Expert opinion
Non-pharmacological interventions are generally preferred as the first-line approach to improve sleep-related symptoms in AD due to their favorable safety profile. However, when non-pharmacological interventions alone are insufficient, a range of pharmacological agents can be considered. Trazodone and melatonin are commonly used as adjunctive therapies, while Z-drugs including zopiclone and zolpidem are specifically employed to treat insomnia in patients with late-onset AD. Furthermore, a newer class of agents known as dual orexin receptor antagonists has emerged and gained approval for improving sleep onset and maintenance in AD patients.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)501-514
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Issue number6
Early online date2 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2023


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