Pharmacovigilance in High-Income Countries: Current Developments and a Review of Literature

Muhammad Akhtar Abbas Khan, Saima Hamid, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The world bank has classified 80 economies based on their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita as High-Income. European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) are the major regulatory stakeholders driving global pharmacovigilance regulations. The purpose of this article is to describe pharmacovigilance systems and processes in high-income countries, particularly those that are also members of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). All high-income countries are members of the WHO PIDM. The income level of a country has a direct relationship with medicine safety measures. All ten pioneering members of the Uppsala monitoring centre are from high-income countries and were the first responders after the thalidomide tragedy by making drug evaluation committees, introducing the ADR reporting forms and taking safety measures. Despite access to the VigiBase, some countries have separate databases for managing and analyzing data like Canada Vigilance online database, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, the French pharmacovigilance database and European Union’s system Eudravigilance. All high-income countries have robust pharmacovigilance systems. USFDA and EMA are the world leaders in the field of pharmacovigilance. Most high-income countries follow EMA guidelines. Medicine safety is directly influenced by a country’s income level.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10
Number of pages12
Issue number1
Early online date6 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


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