Glucose and hypotonicity induced cell swelling stimulate insulin release from pancreatic β-cells but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Recently, Piezo1 was identified as a mechanically-activated nonselective Ca2+ permeable cationic channel in a range of mammalian cells. As cell swelling induced insulin release could be through stimulation of Ca2+ permeable stretch activated channels, we hypothesised a role for Piezo1 in cell swelling induced insulin release. Two rat β-cell lines (INS-1 and BRIN-BD11) and freshly-isolated mouse pancreatic islets were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ measurements were performed using the fura-2 Ca2+ indicator dye and ionic current was recorded by whole cell patch-clamp. Piezo1 agonist Yoda1, a competitive antagonist of Yoda1 (Dooku1) and an inactive analogue of Yoda1 (2e) were used as chemical probes. Piezo1 mRNA and insulin secretion were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Piezo1 mRNA was detected in both β-cell lines and mouse islets. Yoda1 evoked Ca2+ entry was inhibited by Yoda1 antagonist Dooku1 as well as other Piezo1 inhibitors gadolinium and ruthenium red, and not mimicked by 2e. Yoda1, but not 2e, stimulated Dooku1-sensitive insulin release from β-cells and pancreatic islets. Hypotonicity and high glucose increased intracellular Ca2+ and enhanced Yoda1 Ca2+ influx responses. Yoda1 and hypotonicity induced insulin release were significantly inhibited by Piezo1 specific siRNA. Pancreatic islets from mice with haploinsufficiency of Piezo1 released less insulin upon exposure to Yoda1. The data show that Piezo1 channel agonist induces insulin release from β-cell lines and mouse pancreatic islets suggesting a role for Piezo1 in cell swelling induced insulin release. Hence Piezo1 agonists have the potential to be used as enhancers of insulin release.