Politeness in Pragmatics

Dániel Z. Kádár

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary

Abstract

Politeness comprises linguistic and non-linguistic behavior through which people indicate that they take others’ feelings of how they should be treated into account. Politeness comes into operation through evaluative moments—the interactants’ (or other participants’) assessments of interactional behavior—and it is a key interpersonal interactional phenomenon, due to the fact that it helps people to build up and maintain interpersonal relationships. The operation of politeness involves valences: when people behave in what they perceive as polite in a given situation, they attempt to enactment shared values with others, hence triggering positive emotions. The interactants use valenced categories as a benchmark for their production and evaluation of language and behavior, and valence reflects the participants’ perceived moral order of an interactional context/event, that is, their perceptions of ‘how things should be’ in a given situation. Thus, the examination of politeness reveals information about the broader in-group, social, and cultural values that underlie the productive and evaluative interactional behavior of individuals. As politeness is a social action that consists of both linguistic and non-linguistic elements and that embodies a social practice, the research of politeness also provides insights into the social practices that surround individual language use.

Pragmatics-based research on politeness started in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and has become one of the most popular areas in pragmatics. The field has undergone various methodological and theoretical changes. These include the “first wave” of politeness research, in the course of which researchers either attempted to model politeness across languages and cultures by using universal frameworks, or engaged in culture-specific criticism of such frameworks. In the “second wave” of politeness research, researchers attempted to approach politeness as an individualistic, and often idiosyncratic, interactionally co-constructed phenomenon. A key argument of the second wave is that politeness can only be studied at the micro-level of the individual, and so it may be overambitious to attempt to model this phenomenon across languages and cultures. In the “third wave” of politeness research, scholars attempt to model politeness across languages and cultures, without compromising the endeavour of examining politeness as an interactionally co-constructed phenomenon.

Key phenomena studied in politeness research include, among others, impoliteness, intercultural interaction, cross-cultural similarities and differences of politeness, the gendered characteristics of politeness behavior, and convention and ritual. Politeness research is a multidisciplinary field that is engaged in the examination of a wide variety of data types.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationOxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics
EditorsMark Aronoff
PublisherOxford University Press
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017

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Kádár, D. Z. (2017). Politeness in Pragmatics. In M. Aronoff (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.218
Kádár, Dániel Z. / Politeness in Pragmatics. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. editor / Mark Aronoff. Oxford University Press, 2017.
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Kádár, DZ 2017, Politeness in Pragmatics. in M Aronoff (ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.218

Politeness in Pragmatics. / Kádár, Dániel Z.

Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. ed. / Mark Aronoff. Oxford University Press, 2017.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary

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Kádár DZ. Politeness in Pragmatics. In Aronoff M, editor, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. 2017 https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.218