The in vitro activity of the novel chloroethylating agent, Clomesone, was investigated in a panel of established murine and human tumour cell lines. In vivo anti-tumour activity was examined against three transplantable adenocarcinomas of the mouse colon and in vivo bone marrow toxicity was assessed using a spleen colony forming unit assay. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of the drug in vivo and drug stability in vitro was analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Clomesone exhibited no activity in vitro against the majority of cell lines derived from solid human colorectal carcinomas. Anti-tumour activity against the murine tumours in vivo was not impressive and was accompanied by myelosuppression. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that the lack of in vivo activity was due to the failure to achieve effective anti-neoplastic drug concentrations at the tumour site. It was concluded that this study found no evidence to suggest that Clomesone was toxicologically more selective than the chloroethylnitrosoureas.